Glossary of Legal Terms – N

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From “National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)” to “Nuncupative will”

National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
A federal agency which prevents and remedies unfair labor practices by employers and labor organizations

Naturalization
Process by which a person acquires nationality after birth and becomes entitled to privileges of citizenship.

Negligence
Failure to use care which a reasonable and prudent person would use under similar circumstances.

Negotiation
The process of submission and consideration of offers until an acceptable offer is made and accepted.

Next friend
One acting without formal appointment as guardian for the benefit of an infant, a person of unsound mind not judicially declared incompetent, or other person under some disability.

No Bill
This phrase, endorsed by a grand jury on the written indictment submitted to it for its approval, means that the evidence was found insufficient to indict.

No-contest Clause
Language in a will that provides that a person who makes a legal challenge to the will’s validity will be disinherited.

No-fault Proceedings
A civil case in which parties may resolve their dispute without a formal finding of error or fault.

Nolo contendere
A Latin phrase meaning “I will not contest it.” A plea in a criminal case which does not require the defendant to admit guilt, but the defendant does not contest the facts on which the charge is based. Some judges refuse to accept such pleas in criminal cases.

Non compos mentis
Not of sound mind; insane.

Nonfeasance
Nonperformance of an act which should be performed; omission to perform a required duty or total neglect of duty.

Nonjury trial
Trial before the court but without a jury.

Not guilty by reason of insanity
The jury or the judge must determine that the defendant, because of mental disease or defect, could not form the intent required to commit the offense.

Not guilty plea
Complete denial of guilt. In criminal cases, a necessary stage of the proceedings required to preserve all legal issues.

Notary Public
A public officer whose function it is to administer oaths, to attest and certify documents, and to take acknowledgments.

Notice
Formal notification to the party that has been sued in a civil case of the fact that the lawsuit has been filed. Also, any form of notification of a legal proceeding.

Notice to creditors
A notice given by the bankruptcy court to all creditors of a meeting of creditors.

Nuncupative will
An oral (unwritten) will.

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